Posts tagged: resize

Resizing Your File System: There’s A Pill For That 3

Funny how 3 preceded two… well, the story is simple. I had a Centos machine that needed

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more storage. The problem is that the setup is what I liked to call a babushka doll setup. It’s pretty straight forward. The Centos install in on an ext3 partition, on an LVM partition, provided by Xen, mounted over NFS. We have to work backwards here to make this work. As a note, my method to resize the LVM device will not work if it is not the last partition on the partition table. If it is, then you may have to settle for creating another physical volume, then adding it to your logical volume and extending your LVM on to that.

Now I tagged this online, but I had to reboot twice. If you remove the Xen part of this, then it probably would be. Xen is using a file backed block device, so the first thing to do is extend this image by however many gigabytes we need. In my case we needed at least 10 more gigabytes. Here is the code how to do this.

dd if=/dev/zero of=centos.img oflag=append conv=notrunc count=$[1024*10] bs=$[1024*1024]

I am doing some math here. The bytes at a time is set to 1024 to the power of 2, which gives us a megabyte. Then I count 10 x 1024 megabytes. The over all is 10 gigabytes will be appended to centos.img. I set notrunc as a precaution not to erase my existing file. Please be careful using these commands. Without append and notrunc you will erase your data. In fact, if space permitted, always backup your block device. Now, I can’t do that because I never have the time or space.

Sadly, the centos.img file is an entire block device. It has partitions and I didn’t know what geometry of the virtual disk to go ahead and change it. This is where I had to reboot my virtual instance to get it to reread its partition table. It may be possible to use parted’s partprobe to reread this. I haven’t tested it. If it does work, then this reboot may be avoided.

The scariest part of all of this is that you now need to delete your LVM partition and recreate it at the same starting block. Notice below that both starting blocks are 14? The end block will now be the

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last block on the device. Because I was unable to boot to another machine or a live cd to accomplish this, I am booted to the machine I am resizing. Also because this is my root file system, the kernel will be unable to reread the

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partition table as the device is mounted and busy. This is where my second and last reboot takes place. If this was not a mounted file system or you created an alternative root file system to pivot_root to, then you may be able to avoid this. If this is your root and you wanted to pivot_root, I would ask yourself why bother.

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Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvda1 * 1 13 104391 83 Linux
/dev/xvda2 14 2804 22418707+ 8e Linux LVM

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
/dev/xvda1 * 1 13 104391 83 Linux
/dev/xvda2 14 4110 32909152+ 8e Linux LVM

Next I needed to resize the LVM volume group before I try to resize the logical volume. To do this I used the following command. I love commands where you don’t have to give it the size you want it to be.

lvresize /dev/xvda2

For the next step is is important to know which partition you are planning to extend. The lvdisplay command will give you output similar to mine. The size of the device will be a good indication. You could also just look at the output of mount or df.

— Logical volume —
LV Name /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
VG Name VolGroup00
LV UUID 1wfxhX-i8cU-Gvef-UkE0-Se2j-cE1f-bSJRPQ
LV Write Access read/write
LV Status available
# open 1
LV Size 30.88 GB
Current LE 988
Segments 2
Allocation inherit
Read ahead sectors auto
– currently set to 256
Block device 253:0

— Logical volume —
LV Name /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01
VG Name VolGroup00
LV UUID hd4K5T-lOZb-LAbZ-rHeM-3GY1-qFaX-qohjDZ
LV Write Access read/write
LV Status available
# open 1
LV Size 512.00 MB
Current LE 16
Segments 1
Allocation inherit
Read ahead sectors auto
– currently set to 256
Block device 253:1

Now you can use the lvextend command to extend the LVM partition to use more of the physical extents. Because my math is, or as I can tell, so accurate, I can pass +10G to this command

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and use 100% of the new space.

lvextend -L +10G /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00

All of the LVM work can be done online and luckily so can a resize of ext3, as long as you’re increasing the size and not shrinking it any. The command ext2online was once used to preform an online resize, however it has been merged in to resize2fs. If you can’t find ext2online the tool is now resize2fs. This is another tool that will assume I want to fill the entire partition. It is very important to remember that you aren’t going to resize the physical partition, but the LVM volume group. In my example the device path to my volume group was /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00.

resize2fs /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00

Behold you are done, unless it couldn’t do it online. It’s possible for the online resize to do a quasi-online resize. If this happens you just have to reboot again. I didn’t have to so I hope you won’t either.

Resizing Your File System: There's A Pill For That

It eventually happens that I find that my file system was inadequately setup or the size of my data was grew larger than original design plans. Whatever the case may be, the problem is simple… The file system is too small. There are two approaches to this. You can make a file copy backup of your data, which I’ve shown you in a previous post, and restore the data on to a new hard drive.

In one sentence I’ve explained my first post here, but let me elaborate some important parts.

  1. You need to partition your new drive to fit your new needs and don’t forget to make your
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    boot partition active or your bios will most likely not run your boot loader.

  2. You need to format the new partitions.
  3. At this point you can copy back your data.
  4. You will need to setup your master boot record/boot loader to load your files you’ve just restored.
  5. You may need to alter your /etc/fstab if you’ve changed the partition numbers around.

If anyone finds a want for me to cover partitioning and or formatting partitions before I end up writing a post about it, feel free to leave a comment.

To restore your files you simply reverse the command from my previous post. The only catch is that you will start by mounting your root partition first. Then restore your root files. Then repeat by mounting your next file system on the new root and then restoring its files. Here is an example.

~ # mount /dev/sdb3 /mnt/newroot
~ # rsync -avHSx –numeric-ids –progress /mnt/backups/root/ /mnt/newroot
~ # mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/newroot/boot
~ # rsync -avHSx –numeric-ids –progress /mnt/backups/boot/ /mnt/newroot/boot

The quickest way to reinstall grub is knowing a few things about your setup. Here is an example based on my system.

~ # grub

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device (hd0) /dev/sda

grub> root (hd0,0)
Filesystem type is ext2fs, partition type 0x83

grub> setup (hd0,0)

Basically the jest of what that command does is; after entering the grub shell, you set the first drive to /dev/sda, then we say that the root of Grub will be in the first drive’s first partition. The last command installs grub on to your drive.