Posts tagged: linux

Remote OS Conversion: Doing It Remotely

Ok, this post is

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its original scope… the problem is simple; your machine is hundreds of miles away and all you have is remote console. Your mission if you choose to accept (if you’re even given the choice) is to install Centos on the remote machine. Now, huge disclaimer… there may be a better way to do this.

As I saw it… I could have tried to set something up to run from the current distribution. My problem is that I also had to redo the partition tables and reformat. I can’t boot to a second medium as I can’t just pop in a CD or USB drive. This also excludes rsyncing a Centos install to the destination.

My first attempt was to chainboot an ISO using grub. Unfortunately I wasn’t running grub2 and I had to use an ISO which can’t be mapped because it isn’t a HD device. Of course grub2 apparently natively supports it. Also don’t be fooled by Google. Loads of people suggest using a knoppix kernel which supports the bootfrom kernel option. The caveat is that the booting kernel must match the kernel in the ISO.

Here was my plan and I totally have done this before. The first line of business was to grab the Centos net install ISO. Fortunately its totally not bloated and is roughly 10 mbs. Next you have to mount it to disect the CD.

mount -oloop Centos_netinstall.iso /mnt/cd-rom

Most, if not all, Linux bootable CDs use isolinux. All I needed to do was find the isolinux configuration, which reminds

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me a lot like the Lilo configuration file.

The configuration has a kernel and an initrd. The kernel in my case was called vmlinuz and the initrd was called initrd.img. I copied those over to /boot and modified my grub like the following.

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title sin
root (hd0,0)
kernel vmlinuz
initrd initrd.img

Fire it up and you have yourself a Centos net install from grub on your remote system.

Let us talk about further thinking… This principal can be used to create a bootable USB Centos net install thumb drive. Simply install grub to the thumb drive and perform the previous commands.

Say you have a Android x86 bootable ISO and you want to load in your own kernel or turn the ISO into an bootable USB drive. Do the same to grab the kernel and the ram disks. Then boot it from the USB or what have you. Once booted you can grab the configuration for the kernel from /proc/config.gz and compile your own replacement kernel remembering to slip in your new modules in the Android appropriate location.

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There’s probably more helpful things you can do after you split the ISO open and remove the precious brains.


For This: An Ad Hoc Guide To Advanced Latin Networking

This post won’t be Greek to you if you found it by googling your error. Our office network has been very unreliable as of late. Working in a terminal is hell when your latency is 15 seconds. I decided to setup my phone to work as a wifi router. After compiling the rtl8187 module in my 2.6.34 kernel I tried the following command with the resulting error.

root@miar:~# iwconfig wlan1 essid AndroidTether mode ad-hoc
Error for wireless request “Set Mode” (8B06) :
SET failed on device wlan1 ; Operation not supported.

After a bit of looking around I found that the in-kernel rtl8187 module is compiled against the mac80211 library. The new library is apparently more generic and implementation is a bit different. The bottom line is there is no Ad Hoc support for the rtl8187 module. Other modules get around this by implementing adhoc-demo. The adhoc-demo has some limitations too. For example it doesn’t send out beacons. Because of that you have to configure the channel and other settings that would normally be detected in those beacons. To me this is way better than not working at all.

The real root of the problem was that they deprecated the IEEE80211 library that the older drivers used. The newer driver based on the aforementioned mac80211 library may have some limitations too but I’m really only

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discussing rtl8187. The older drivers based off the IEEE80211 also require WIRELESS_EXT which is also deprecated. I tried enabling the deprecated kernel modules with success however the older kernel module source would still not compile against the newer kernel. I believe there are other elements that were changed or removed in the more modern 2.6.34 kernel. My recommendation for anyone experiencing these problems may want to voice their concerns in existing bug tickets or if none exist open a bug to get Ad Hoc support officially added in to the module.

On the same page that discussed adhoc-demo

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a patch was produced to specifically implement Ad Hoc support to the rtl8187 in-kernel module. There was another interesting patch to add mesh support but I wasn’t really interested in that functionality at the time. Below is the patch I applied that worked to get Ad Hoc support for my (Trend Micro) rtl8187B usb network adapter. Please bare in mind that this patch was taken from a newsgroup posting I found and is a band aid patch to the real problem.

— linux-2.6.x/drivers/net/wireless/rtl818x/rtl8187_dev.c.orig 2010-07-29 14:40:09.000000000 +0300
+++ linux-2.6.x/drivers/net/wireless/rtl818x/rtl8187_dev.c 2010-07-29 14:59:39.000000000 +0300
@@ -1032,6 +1032,7 @@ static int rtl8187_add_interface(struct

switch (vif->type) {
+ case NL80211_IFTYPE_ADHOC:
goto exit;
@@ -1178,7 +1179,10 @@ static void rtl8187_bss_info_changed(str

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= 0;

if (is_valid_ether_addr(info->bssid)) {
– reg |= RTL818X_MSR_INFRA;
+ if (vif->type == NL80211_IFTYPE_ADHOC)
+ reg |= RTL818X_MSR_ADHOC;
+ else
+ reg |= RTL818X_MSR_INFRA;
rtl818x_iowrite8(priv, &priv->map->MSR, reg);
} else {
reg |= RTL818X_MSR_NO_LINK;
@@ -1502,7 +1506,8 @@ static int __devinit rtl8187_probe(struc
* XXX: Once this driver supports anything that requires
* beacons it must implement IEEE80211_TX_CTL_ASSIGN_SEQ.
– dev->wiphy->interface_modes = BIT(NL80211_IFTYPE_STATION);
+ dev->wiphy->interface_modes = BIT(NL80211_IFTYPE_STATION) |

if ((id->driver_info == DEVICE_RTL8187) && priv->is_rtl8187b)
printk(KERN_INFO “rtl8187: inconsistency between id with OEM”

Once patched my commands executed properly. Remember if you insmoded the rtl8187 module before recompiling with the patch it will remain resident in memory until you rmmod it and insmod it again. I hope you

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find this information as useful as I did. Thank you to the original author of the patch!

SMBD: No I’m Not Talking About Samba

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availability. You can’t afford to have a switch go down or have a network card go bad. You need uptime and you need it now. Now let’s make this even more complicated. Let’s add non native vlans to this ordeal. My weapons of choice are bonding and Gentoo. We need a few things.

  1. Linux bonding module – Device Drives > Network device support > <M> Bonding drive support (you can make this a module or build it in but my howto only covers the module)
  2. VLAN support – Networking support > Network options > 802.1Q VLAN Support
  3. net-misc/vconfig
  4. net-misc/ifenslave

After building the modules in your Linux kernel, emerge net-misc/vconfig net-misc/ifenslave . Next you want to setup the bonding module to auto load with your settings. Note that you may have more modules in your autoload file.

# cat /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6

bonding miimon=100 mode=1

Remember to run update-modules. The miimon setting is how often, in milliseconds, the link state of the interface is checked. If it does not have link it will remove the link from the pool. The mode setting indicates the way the interfaces are balanced. There are several modes, but most require that your switch also be configured to use them. In this howto’s case mode 1 is set. Mode 1 is active/backup where you may have one active link up and one or more backups or standbys. If the active fails a backup will take its place.

Next you need to configure the network. The network

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configuration file for Gentoo is /etc/conf.d/net . Here is how to setup bonding.

config_eth0=( “null” )
config_eth1=( “null” )

slaves_bond0=”eth0 eth1″

config_bond0=( “” )
routes_bond0=( “default via” )

Basically you set eth0 and eth1 to have no configuration. This allows the ethernets to be brought up to use, but not configured to do anything or assumed to be dhcp. The slaves_bond0 directive sets which

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interfaces are members of the pool of available interfaces. Finally config_ and route_ sets the ip and gateway for your interface.

Now, let’s say you are going to add non native VLANs. The config_ and route_ lines won’t work now. Here is the new config.

config_eth0=( “null” )
config_eth1=( “null” )

slaves_bond0=”eth0 eth1″

config_bond0=( “null” )

vlans_bond0=”100 200″
vconfig_bond0=( “set_name_type VLAN_PLUS_VID_NO_PAD” )

config_vlan100=( “” )
routes_vlan100=( “default via” )
config_vlan200=( “” )

Basically the only difference is the removal of routes_bond0 and setting config_bond0 to null. The vlans_bond0 sets which VLANS to attach the interface to, mtu_bond0 sets the MTU size, and vconfig_bond0 sets VLAN options. Finally it’s time to setup the actual VLAN interfaces, those are config_<vlanid>. In our case we’ve already set them with vlans_bond0, so we have config_vlan100 and config_vlan200. Our default route goes out vlan100, so routes_vlan100 is used and vlan200 is our private interface.

That concludes our bondage training. I hope you all enjoyed and found this informational.